ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Erythrina velutina is traditionally used for sleepiness, convulsions and nervous system excitation. Braz J Med Biol Res. Feb;39(2) Epub Feb 2. Effect of Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in rats submitted to animal models of anxiety. PDF | Four new Erythrinan alkaloids () were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina velutina. The structures of these new compounds were.
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Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina. Santana I ; Rejane M. Randau I ; Luiz A.
Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name.
The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk.
Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie.
The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.
Erythrina velutina; Fabaceae; morphoanatomy; mulungu. Comprising more than genera and species, the Fabaceae Papilionoideae family is widely distributed throughout the world, especially in tropical and subtropical regions.
According to Joly is one of families with the greatest representative numbers in the dicotyledons. Among the genres with native species, more common in the northeast region are Phaseolus, Crotalaria, Erytrhina, Andira, Sophora, Indigofera and Mucunaamong others Judd et al.
The Erythrina genus comprises about tropical species in warm-temperate regions and is divided into five subgenres and 26 sections. In Brazil, there are 12 known species, of which eight are located in the northeast. It can be found in a variety of biomes in the national territory. Popular medicine indicates the use of several Erythrina genus species as a tranquilizer, sedative, insomnia control and aid in the treatment of inflammatory processes.
Phytochemical studies demonstrated that the plants belonging to the Erythrina genus are sources of tetracyclic alkaloids of the Erythrina flavonoids type, especially isoflavones, pterocarpanos, flavanones and isoflavanonas Cabral,coumarins and saponins Da Cunha et al. Due to phytochemical employment, this study aim to characterize the anatomy of the leaf and stem of Erythrina velutinain order to provide quality control subsidies for the plant drug, as well as its differentiation from other species with the same name popular denomination.
The samples were fixed in FAA 50, and subsequently semipermanent histological slides were prepared, containing crosssections and paradermal sections of the material previously prepared, following normal plant anatomy procedures Sass, ; Johansen, The analyses edythrina carried vellutina in digital images captured by optical microscope Olympus coupled with a digital camera Sony ; the density of stomata was determined through the use of an image analysis program, Image Tool Wilcox et al.
Microchemical tests were performed on fresh material: The stem bark is smooth to slightly rough. The leaf is ternate with an obtuse apex and symmetrical base. The inflorescence is fascicle type, presenting orangish flowers.
The fruit is a legume, with an acute apex and base, with seeds. The seeds are reniform, presenting a dark-red to orange-red color Figure 1. In cross-sectional view, the young stem presents a cylindrical contour Figure 2a with a layered epidermis coating, covered by thickened cuticle Figure 2b. Claviform glandular trichomes Figure 2c and branched tector trichome.
Figure 2d with uniseriate stalk were observed. The angular collenchyma Figure 2b is observed immediately under the epidermis with layers of cells. A band of collenchyma fibers is found, with cells thick, about layers of cortical parenchyma with many intercellular lacunas. Styloid and prismatic crystals Figure 2b are seen inside of subepidermal cells and in cortical parenchyma.
Inside the central cylinder, collateral vascular bundles with fiber caps on the phloem and medullar parenchyma are found. The styloid crystals are also present in large quantities into the parenchyma cells within the vascular bundles and the medullary region.
The secondary growth is evidenced by the presence of phellogen in the cortex Figure 3a and vascular cambium in the central cylinder.
Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina
Phellogen formation does not velugina occurs, and can be found in some areas, just under the epidermis Figure 3a. Groups of fibers, forming a band over the phloem, were found in the stem cortex Figure 3b. The vascular bundles are collateral, with varying sized secretory cavities in the phloem Figure 3c. In the region of the phloem, the secretory structures have various sizes Figure 3d. The identification of the substance inside of these secretory cavities was not possible, which have an internal coating by periclinal flat or convex cells, arranged in a single layer Figure 3d.
The petiole presents a uniseriate epidermis, branched trichomes, covered by a thickened cuticle, followed by three to four layers of angular collenchyma.
The external cortical parenchyma cells exhibit inter cellular spaces of various dimensions Figure 4a4b. Prismatic and styloid crystals were observed inside the collenchyma, cortical parenchyma, and phloem and xylem cells Figure 4cvelytina4e. Sclerenchyma velutins caps surrounding the crystalliferous sheath cells in the vascular bundles Figure 4f.
There are, approximately, 12 collateral vascular bundles, with cells of thickness circumference with lignified cell velutona. The leaf-blade, in front view, epidermis with predominance of branched and glandular trichomes and eryythrina and anisocytic stomata on both surfaces Figure 5a-d.
In the adaxial surface, epidermal cells on the veins have prismatic crystals on their interior. The anticlinal walls of epidermal cells are sinuous on both surfaces Figure 5a-d. The stomata density on the abaxial surface was In cross-sectional view, the leaf-blade presented branched trichomes with uniseriate stems Figure 6b.
The epidermis surface, on the abaxial surface, presents large furrows in the leaf vein region Figure 6c. The mesophyll is of the dorsiventral type, with three layers of palisade parenchyma and a number of varied layers of spongy parenchyma, with large inter cellular spaces.
The mesophyll presents two layers of colourless parenchyma cells, between palisade and spongy Figure 6a. Prismatic crystals are present inside the uniseriate layer of cells that involve the fibre cap around the vascular bundles on the mesophyll interior.
The vascular bundle is collateral closed, with angular collenchyma over and under the veins. The vascular bundles, in the lower caliber leaf vein region of the show sheath extensions in the direction of the adaxial surface and fiber cap on the xylem and the phloem Figure 6c. Secretory cavities are present in the vascular bundles, always associated with the phloem, both in the mesophyll as in the petiole. These cavities are always delimited by a uniseriate epithelium of small flattened periclinal cells Figure 6d.
Histochemical tests indicated the presence of phytoconstituents of lipid droplets, alkaloids and phenolic substances in stem and in leaf of E. In the Stem Figure 7a-d and in the leaf Figure 7e-jphenolic compounds were found in secretory cavities inside the phloem Figure 7a and in branched trichomes Figure 7c and 7i.
Alkaloids is erythrin in parenchyma cells and secretory cavities Figure 7bin glandular and tector trichomes Figure 7d and in capitate glandular trichome Figure 7g. The color absence was performed by a control Figure 7h. Several representatives of the genus Erythrina show pharmaceutical importance, such as E. Due to the similarities among the species, with the same pharmaceutical application, with external leaf blade and petiole and stem morphology of Erythrina velutina Willd.
Considering the types of stomata found in E. In the latter species, in addition to paracytic stomata, anomocytic stomata were found.
Erythrina velutina – Useful Tropical Plants
A greater quantity of stomata was observed on the abaxial surface of the epidermis, similar to that recorded for Centrolobium tomentosum, E. Greater stomatal density on the abaxial surface is common in species that occur in xeromorphic environments, a fact explained as a feature that minimizes water loss by ostiolar evapotranspiration Esau, ; Cutter, Sinuous anticlinal walls were observed in E.
Cristaliferous’ cells are found in the internal and external cortical and medullar parenchyma of E. The presence of secretory structures is indicative of substance production by the plant Fahn, and, in the case of E. The secretory ducts are associated with the phloem in the vascular bundles of the stem in E. Secretory structures in Fabaceae are mainly related with fruits Paiva et al.
Dorsiventral mesophyll type is also recorded in the literature for the Erythrina genus, as in C. The type of vascular bundle found in E. It is characteristic of these species have layers of achlorophyllous cells or with little chloroplasts between the palisade and spongy parenchyma, or between the palisade layers as in the E.
The presence of secretory cavities for these species was not cited. Fiber caps on the xylem and phloem as well the crystals into the cells of vascular bundle sheaths also have been described for E. Great grooves on the abaxial epidermis can be a diagnostic character to E. Histochemical tests evidenced phenolic compound in secretory cavities inside the phloem and branched trichomes. The phenolic compounds are heterogeneous groups of substances that are present in almost all plants, inside the vacuole, cytoplasm or consisting the wall cell Fahn The Sudam reaction detected total lipids in cuticle and branched trichomes The presence of alkaloids in parenchyma cells and secretory cavities in the stem, in glandular, tector and capitate glandular trichomes in the leaf are according to the literature findings to the genus Erythrina Virtuoso, The same was true to indolic alkaloids, mainly the erythrinic type Almeida, The occurrence of alkaloids is a chemiotaxonomical character in the Papilionoideae subfamily.
The presence of secretory cavities in the stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution in the leaf epidermis constitute diagnostic-characters that are important for an accurate and safe identification for E.
We also thank Leonardo dos Santos Costa for the sampling and photos of the species. MMBS MSc student and ASCOS undergraduate student contributed in plant sample identification, confection of herbarium, running the laboratory work, analysis of the data and drafted the paper. LALS erythria to discussion and critical reading of the manuscript.
Erythrina velutina Images
All the authors have read the final manuscript and approved the submission. Rev Bras Farmacogn Eryvellutinone, anisoflavanone from the stem bark of Erythrina velutina. Erbano M, Duarte MR Anatomia das Plantas com sementes. Secretory tissues in plants. Furr M, Mahlberg PG Histochemical analysis of lacticifers and glandular trichomes in Cannabis sativa.